BODEGA in Brief


European border crossing points for external traffic face drastic increases in passenger flows. To improve the effectiveness of EU border control in the context of growing traffic flows, cross-border threats and budget restrictions, new socio-technical models are being envisioned with high reliance on automatic technical systems, such as e-gates. Automatic systems have been locally tested and some experimental data has been gathered on their technical effectiveness. However, these experiments are mainly performed without taking into account the overall socio-technical system and these systems are implemented on the basis of a very limited knowledge of the human factors at border crossing.

The success of a socio-technical system relies both on the efficiency of the technology and on the Human Factors (HF) implied. Human Factors refer to “environmental, organizational and job factors, and human and individual characteristics, which influence behavior at work in a way that can affect health and safety” (Health and Safety Executive 1999). An in-depth knowledge of HF is required to propose viable socio-technical models, which can be used for successful development of border control. However, there exist various challenges, for example,

  • How to propose efficient task allocation between the operators and technological systems without a clear knowledge of the human factors, and the overall picture of the organization?
  • How to avoid monotonous tasks?
  • Which human skills are mandatory at border crossing, to which extent can automatic systems collaborate with border guards without loss in their skills and motivation?

In this context, BODEGA builds a novel set of knowledge about human factors in border control, having in mind the technological solutions that will inexorably alter working conditions. BODEGA gathers expertise about human factors and proposes recommendations to improve the overall performance in border control and therefore contribute to the effectiveness and security of European borders. The research is aligned with Responsible Research and Innovation framework to ensure the work and developed solutions are ethically and societally compatible and investigate properly the foreseen future with smart borders. The project focuses on human and organizational factors of border control technologies and processes and examines the effects of introducing innovative technologies into key border guard tasks, traveler’s performance and behavior and to the total border control system in different operational environments.

Further information about the project, please visit the project’s website at

BODEGA Consortium

The development of the toolbox has been a joint operation involving consortia members from a diverse range of knowledge domains. Knowledge from strategic decision-making to the very operational level at border crossing points was combined with a variety of scientific and business sector expertise on border control. The BODEGA consortium consists of the following partners: